Surah An-Najam 53: - (The Star)
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Most Merciful
“If so, it is a totally unjust division…” [53:22]
“and conjecture is of no use in the matter of Truth…” [53:28]
COMMENTARY: (If so, it is a totally unjust division…” [53:22] – ‘Dheeza’ means to act or behave unjustly or to defraud one of one's right or due. Therefore, Sayyidina Ibn Abbas (RA) interprets the phrase as unjust or unfair division.
Various Types of Zann - (and conjecture is of no use in the matter of Truth .... 53:28)
The Arabic word Zann is used in several different senses, and one of them is baseless thoughts. This is the sense in which it is employed in the verse because baseless thoughts were the cause of idolatry, and the verse purports to remove the cause.
‘Zann’ is also used as the antonym of ‘Yaqin’. ‘Yaqin’ refers to assured or definitive knowledge about something that really exists, not the figment of someone's imagination. In this case, there is no room for any doubt or suspicion, as for instance knowledge gained from the Qur'an and Prophetic Traditions uninterruptedly reported by an indefinite number of people or by such a large number that it is impossible that they should agree upon falsehood.
As opposed to this certain knowledge, ‘Zann’ is sometime used for the knowledge that is based on a proof, and not on baseless thoughts, but the proof is not so certain as may rule out other possibilities, as for example, injunctions based on general narratives of the Noble Prophet (Peace be Upon Him). The first type of injunctions is referred to as ‘Qat'iyyat’ or ‘Yaqeeniyyat’ and the second type is referred to as ‘Zinniyyat’. This type of ‘Zann’ is recognized by Shariah. There is ample evidence in the Qur'an and Sunnah of its recognition. The entire Ummah concurs that it is obligatory to act upon it. The above verse when denouncing ‘Zann’, refers to the first type of ‘Zann’ which connotes baseless thoughts. Thus, there is no contradiction.
~ MA'AARIFUL QUR'AAN ~
TO BE CONTINUED…